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Indeed, early divesters have made out like green-tinged bandits: since the fossil fuel sector has badly underperformed on the market over recent years, moving money into other investments has dramatically increased returns. The deeper question, though, is whether divestment is making a dent in the fossil fuel industry. And there the answer is even clearer: this has become the deepest challenge yet to the companies that have kept us on the path to climate destruction. At first we thought our biggest effect would be to rob fossil fuel companies of their social licence.


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Since their political lobbying power is above all what prevents governments taking serious action on global warming, that would have been worth the fight. As time went on, though, it became clear that divestment was also squeezing the industry. Divestment by itself is not going to win the climate fight. The Carbon Tracker initiative in London published the first report laying out the fact that the fossil fuel industry has five times more carbon in its reserves than any climate scientist thinks is safe.

Climate change increasingly poses one of the biggest long-term threats to those investments and the wealth of the global economy. We need to keep pushing hard on those companies — and we will. Data on the diffusion of digital image technologies are then presented and the issue posed, why the diffusion of digital cameras lags behind the diffusion of other digital image technologies. The first is that digital cameras are constructed by professional photographers as of inferior quality, in technical terms. Hence, they avoid them. The second explanation is that a large number of photographers emphasize currently the artistic merits of their work rather than technical proficiency or effectiveness.

Digital cameras have little to offer such artists-photographers, and others that define their professional identities in similar terms and ground their careers on non-technological forms of innovation and novelty production. The third potential explanation is that the flexibly organised small-enterprise networks within which most photographers operate generate risk aversion strategies and economies of diversification that work against the diffusion of digital cameras among professional photographers.

In conclusion it is argued that technological change in branches and activities concerned with symbolic production follows trajectories significantly different from those of other types of production. Further, it is argued that branches and sub-branches in which relatively small scale symbolic producers dominate such as advertising and fashion photography tend to receive new, digital technologies in other ways than branches in which relatively large units dominate e. Recent convergence of Central- and Eastern European societies towards Western type capitalist societies is accompanied by the global transformation of industrial societies into information societies.

The general assumption is that in the candidate countries of joining the European Union, after the stabilization of democratic political regimes and capitalist market economies the recently emerged social inequalities are rather tend to decrease. However, the expansion of new economy could have a contradictory effect on social stratification mechanisms: by creating an opportunity of rapid elimination of inherited economic backwardness, at the same time, it promotes the digital divide within societies and tends to reproduce the existing inequalities.

The development of manufacturing industries related to information and communication technologies per se do not contribute to the decline of class differences: a more balanced social structure could be formed only via complex spill-over effects. In this paper, besides using an excessive quantitative database for candidate countries, based on several case studies, I try to identify the most important factors which have crucial role in declining versus reproducing social inequalities.

The classical entrepreneurial spirit, flexibility and trust-based cooperative behavior, innovation skills and digital education are the key factors. Author s : Brian Moeran. Because economies everywhere are concerned with the production, circulation, representation and consumption of goods and services, economic sociology has to address two interrelated spheres. One consists of people interacting - by themselves and in the company of others, forming networks, associations, corporations, and other institutions and organisations.

Here we are concerned, broadly speaking with sociology and social anthropology. The other sphere consists of people's relations to the things that they produce, circulate, represent and consume during the course of their interaction.

20yrs since worst crisis hit Russian economy: Challenges, survival & revival

Here the focus is more on material culture This paper examines various aspects relating to the production, circulation, representation and consumption of international fashion magazines, as published in France, England, the USA, Japan and Hong Kong. Based on interviews, ethnography, data base, and content analysis, the study will try to show some of the paradoxes and contradictions faced by people editors of all kinds, publishers, advertising executives, fashion photographers, readers and so on in their interaction with things the fashion magazines.

Making use of Howard Becker's concept of working 'world' and Bourdieu's theory of 'field', the paper will try to outline both how the economic is inflected by the cultural, and vice versa, on the one hand; and how much culture does or does not influence the economy, and vice versa, on the other hand Particular problems arising from this comparative study tend to emerge from the fact that different magazine industries in different parts of the world tend to develop rather different fields in which to operate and publish their products.

This means, first of all, that a single title - like Elle, Marie Claire or Vogue - may have to alter radically its content in order to be competitive in a foreign market. Secondly, different features of magazine industries in different parts of the world may also affect an international fashion magazine's structure both in ordering of editorial material and in the positioning of editorial and advertising pages.

The paper will examine these paradoxes in the context of the five countries being studied and attempt to analyse further the relationship between 'culture' and 'economy' through international fashion magazines.

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There has long been a recognition that regulatory space may be filled by a plurality of influences and sources of regulation but in recent years there has been a much greater recognition of non-state sources of regulation and a growing appreciation of the role such sources can play in managing the risks associated with economic life. This paper considers one of these sources, namely civil society organisations CSOs , and focuses on their role in regulating business risks.

Civil society has been proposed as a panacea for a range of practical, normative, and political problems Practically, organisations in civil society provide information and innovation where more centralized administration fails. Normatively, these organisations attempt the introduction of ethical considerations into economic practices. And politically, they serve as an important resource for governments seeking the support and legitimation for centrally sponsored regulation.

Yet, despite the potentials of civil society, the reality is that voluntary organisation, with isolated exceptions, seldom count. They are ineffective, sidelined, and poorly institutionalised within present regulatory regimes. In this paper, we consider the relationship between CSOs and regulation, assess their successes as players in regulatory space and assess how suited they really are to this role.

We argue that while CSOs have the potential for significant leverage over business and government regulatory agendas their success is still fairly concentrated. We need to understand the conditions under which they are successful and also appreciate their limitations. Turkey has a special place among Western and Islamic countries because of its historical and cultural ties with these countries extending back for countries.

Therefore entrepreneur behavior shows some differences. Entrepreneurs are social actors who play fundamental roles in key institutions of the market economy. In this paper I will try to demonstrate how Turkish entrepreneurs have been reacting against economic, social and political changes from to today. I show how these changes are socially constructed with structural change in Turkey.

This document continued a process what was started at the beginning of 90's and, now, it's opened. This is a process of reflection, participation and action inside "European" civil society and its corporations, in a global sense. As the Green Paper ,7 says: "corporate social responsibility is essentially a concept whereby companies decide voluntary to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment". In this paper, we consider the praxis of the different actors, which are implied in the practices of CSR. From these coordinates, we describe some of their behaviours, strategies and positions.

We use an approach based on the socio-cybernetic paradigm to do it. Therefore, first, we present in these pages a review of two issues: i the main documents of the European's Commission, ii the principal elements and relations of these systems of CSR. Second, we analyse some up-to-date Spanish cases to think their social implications. Third, we propose a prospective reflection in two ways, as strategic postulates and as normative prescriptions. Four, concluding, we finish explaining the future role of sociology in this field of CSR.

Author s : Chikako Nakayama. This paper investigates the concept of intervention, focusing on liberalism and its debates in the interwar period. Typical dichotomy in economics is whether the state should intervene or let the economy function freely. But it is obvious on the other hand that liberalism since the period of classical economics presupposed some intervention of the state and that this dichotomy is incapable of explaining the issue.

This dichotomy or the perspective to decide the degree of intervention allowed within the framework of liberalism be replaced for a different approach to intervention in economic sociology I am going to start with the definition of intervention to take care of people's humanistic life, welfare and security by means of some power. In the structure of worldwide system with nation-states and inter-nation-states, intervention could be done whether under the name of, or in spite of the name of, national sovereignty. The interwar period saw this contradiction. I will examine this contradiction, looking into the rise of economic sociology and of neo-liberalism The frame of reference is taken mainly from Karl Polanyi, who analyzed the contradiction with his 'The Great Transformation'.

He developed his ideas during his stay in Vienna as immigrant and his acquaintances with liberals and socialists of German-speaking countries. In this sense, he experienced the changing phase around liberalism of the time at some distance This paper will show how Polanyi, a self-acknowledged Marxist and humanist, comes to the acceptance of intervention and discuss possibly what it means in our contemporary context.

The proposed paper is analysing the emergence of market economy at the level of the individual citizen after the end of the Communist command economy. It is describing and explaining the structure and extent of societal support for the new macro-economic systems established after The paper will describe the emergence of the market economy and the structure and changes of individual economic values after the collapse of the Communist centrally planned economy.

In the field of economic values, a variety of post-Communist societies will be differentiated between supporters of market values versus supporters of non-market and collective values and social groups with mixed groupings of economic values. The cross-national survey data-base of the paper is on the one hand the New Democracies Barometer which is being directed by the author since and conducted in 16 post-Communist countries and on the other hand the World European Values Surveys.

The paper is comparing the emergence of the market economy and the changes of economic values in a longitudinal perspective between and Author s : Daniel Maman. Different aspects of the relationship between state and economy have traditionally been examined, yet corporate governance and specifically corporate law have received less attention. This paper focuses on the legislation of the new corporate law in Israel at the end of the s, which took place during regime transformation from an interventionist state to a regulatory state.

The article makes specific reference to three disputes: the piercing of the corporate veil, the separation of the position of chairman of the board and chief executive officer, and the obligation of private firms to disclose financial reports. This case study facilitates the identification of two contradicting processes in the relationship between state and corporations, which are micro-economic institutions of capitalism.

On the one hand, despite of the transformation of the regime, state actors are continuously involved both in the internal governance of corporations and the firm's relationship with the environment via corporate law. Such involvement is to large extent bound to public corporations.

1 • INTRODUCTION

The continual involvement of the state in corporate governance will illustrate by the ban on the chairman of the board of public firms from serving as the CEO at the same time. On the other hand, the new reform was inspired by the American neo-liberal model and was heavily based on the 'Law and Economics' perspective, which holds the view that essentially there is no place for state involvement in corporate governance, except for correcting particular market failures.

A major result of the neo-liberal reform led to the creation of social domains that are not constrained or regulated by the state. This is most typical in legislation relating to private corporations, and the outcome is that the corporate law enables corporations to constrain the state's power and its influence on property rights. The aim of this paper is to analyze the institutionalization of the travel market during the Edo-Period in Japan.

Household Survival Strategies and New Forms of Employment in Russia

The social construction of economic markets and their embeddedness in society has received considerable attention in recent research in economic sociology. The travel market in pre-modern Japan is of special interest in the context of this research program as a very early example of a mass consumer market in the service sector. It enhances our theoretical understanding of the triangular relation between suppliers, consumers, and the political elite as a regulator in the social construction of markets.

Oshi lower priests of Shintoistic shrines and Buddhist temples acted as entrepreneurs of the travel market and were the driving force behind its creation.

Chukchi - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage

Although they lacked the modern means of communication, they established trust relations with their costumers through vast social networks. As the costs of a long distance travel were not bearable individually for the majority of the population, associations for collective financing of the travel activities of members spread in the country.

Traveling became a central aspect of the popular culture of the common population and was embedded in everyday social practice. Although the local feudal lords did not welcome the travel activities of the population, their dependency on the Ise Shrine and its oshi for keeping good diplomatic relations with the Tokugawa Shogunate as the central political authority forced them to restrain on their countermeasures.

This paper shows some results from a research carried out to precisely determine value conflicts in the current Spanish culture. We will focus here on socio-economic ideologies.

Based on data from a wide range of surveys, we will show, on the one hand, the socio-economic values nearly all Sapaniards agree with. On the other hand, we will show the socio-economic values half of the Sapaniards agree with and half do not. The first ones signal great "consensus" or agreements in the Spanish culture, whereas the second ones signal great "disensus" or disagreements.